Healthy living beyond the 7 Healing Practices includes keeping your weight at a healthy level, giving up smoking and limiting alcohol intake.
You may be nodding your head right now saying “I know, I know: obesity, smoking and too much alcohol are not good for me and changing this could save my life and not changing this will likely shorten my life and make me feel bad in the meantime. But . . . . “
We recognize that breaking an unhealthy habit and replacing it with a healthy one is a big deal. Most people need guidance, information and support to pull off such big changes.
We point you to some of the wealth of resources to inform you about these additional anticancer strategies and guide you in creating healthy habits that stick. You will also find ideas in each of the 7 Healing Practice summaries, as well as in some of the integrative therapies summaries, such as the use of acupuncture in smoking cessation, or employing stress management skills to replace using eating, smoking or drinking alcohol to deal with stress.
The first step is to commit to your health.
Lifestyle, Body Terrain and the Tumor Microenvironment
The real power of adding healthy lifestyle practices and stopping unhealthy ones is in making your body’s terrain inhospitable to cancer and other diseases, tipping the balance toward well-being. Healthy living helps you take charge as your own internal environmental engineer!
We’re already seeing compelling evidence that lifestyle factors may be the missing ingredient of the existing cancer treatment model.
Much more detail is found in the Body Terrain and Tumor Microenvironment summary, describing the influence of each of the 7 Healing Practices on your internal environment. Each of the opposites of the 7 Healing Practices—unhealthy eating, inactivity, poor sleep, unmanaged stress, isolation, frequent exposure to environmental toxins, and despair and hopelessness—can contribute to cancer growth and spread, in part by fostering these conditions in which cancer grows and thrives:
- Chronic inflammation
- Insulin resistance
- Oxidative stress
- Increased circulating estrogen
- Impaired detoxification and the resulting build-up of toxic metabolites
- Impaired break down and absorption of nutrients
Cancer does not grow in isolation. It develops within an environment we help create by the things we eat day after day, by our stress levels, our physical activity, our support network, the quality of our sleep, and our exposure to environmental toxins.
Your doctor might throw the most powerful surgery, radiation and drugs at cancer, and even though these therapies might effectively kill most of the cancer cells, they were not designed to keep cancer from returning. Usually some cancer cells survive, and we must count on our own internal anticancer defenses to kill the remaining cells and keep cancer from recurring. We need to “meet conventional cancer treatment in the middle”, letting healthy lifestyle practices carry the baton from there.
As portrayed eloquently in A Story of Health, many of the risk factors associated with cancer are also risk factors for other diseases:
Three More Anticancer Strategies to Consider
Researchers estimate that more than 50 percent of cancers are caused by lifestyle factors over which we have some degree of control:5
- Obesity (from poor diet and sedentary behavior)
- Tobacco use
- Viral infections (such as human papilloma virus transmitted through sexual contact)
- Radiation (including from too much sun exposure)
- Alcohol use
- Exposure to environmental toxins
The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research includes these recommendations to prevent cancer:6
- Be a healthy weight.
- Limit alcohol consumption.
- Stop smoking and avoid other exposure to tobacco and excess sun are also important in reducing cancer risk.
The 7 Healing Practices address some of these factors. However, three anticancer strategies beyond these healing practices can further weaken the tumor’s microenvironment:
- Manage your weight
- Stop smoking
- Limit alcoholic drinks to two for men and one for women per day at most (fewer is even better)
In addition to directly impacting the body terrain, these three strategies also interact with the 7 Healing Practices and your ability to integrate them into your life:
Potential impacts of a high body weight:
- Make physical activity and exercise difficult or even risky12
- Interfere with quality sleep (obesity is a major risk factor for sleep apnea)13
- Increase stress hormone levels14
Smoking and Pain
A 2020 study found that daily smokers and former daily smokers "reported higher levels of bodily pain compared with never daily smokers at all ages."15 The reason or mechanism for this association is still unknown.
Potential impacts of smoking and tobacco use:
- Decrease appetite and food intake16
- Decrease blood oxygen, reducing endurance during physical activity17
- Interfere with sleep18
- Increase stress hormone levels19
- Increase exposure to toxic chemicals20
Potential impacts of excessive alcohol consumption:
- Decrease the nutrients available to the body21
- Reduce capacity for physical activity and exercise and increase the risk of injury22
- Increase levels of stress hormones23
- Reduce quality sleep24
- Increase exposure to toxic chemicals25
- Interfere with love and support in primary relationships26
It’s so important to resist blaming yourself if you get cancer: Our message is always, "Begin now. Don’t look back. We have no idea what caused your cancer . . . But we do know that there are things you can do differently that will make a radical difference in how you feel."
Getting Started with Healthy Living
Anticancer Lifestyle Program
Using expert videos, animation, text and interactives, the Change Module of the Anticancer Lifestyle Program introduces you to the course, and help you make lasting lifestyle changes that will decrease inflammation and enhance your immune system’s ability to fight disease.
This online course is available for a modest fee which can be waived.
The Circle of Health
Imagine a circle (or draw one on a page). Imagine or draw the word “HEALTH” in the middle of that circle. Think of some activities or practices that might get you into the center of HEALTH. Write them on the circle, if you wish. Outside the circle, picture or write some things that keep you from getting to the center of HEALTH. Finally, think of what will open up your access to the Circle of Health.
You do not need to overwhelm yourself trying to do too much. Once you commit to your health, it only takes one practice to bring you into the Circle. Once one practice has brought you in, the nature of the circle is that other practices that are right for you will find their way in at the right time. All your practices will flow in an integrated way. This is why we depict the 7 Healing Practices as puzzle pieces forming the perimeter of a circle.
Lots of different ways are available to create healthy habits that stick. Find a strategy for change that works for you: some people are more successful stopping smoking cold turkey, while others do better with a gradual tapering, for example. Some people find that it helps to add on a healthy pleasure before taking away an unhealthy one.
Changing Behaviors and Habits
Comprehensive lifestyle change, combined with conventional cancer care, is powerful medicine that can help control, and potentially prevent, cancer.
We consider two approaches from experts on changing your lifestyle behaviors and habits. Perhaps one will resonate with you.
Creating Healthy Habits That Stick
Dr. Mark Alloia, a behavioral psychologist who guides people in lifestyle changes offers the following advice in creating healthy habits that stick:29
Commit first to your health, rather than committing to one behavior or habit. This opens the door to practicing a variety of health-promoting behaviors that add up and lessens the risk of feeling like you’ve failed. Ambivalence is normal when thinking about changing your behavior. The process is not about succeeding or failing, but of committing to your health.
Pick It and Stick with It Rhyme
Takes a few months for a change to stick.
Tell your plan to a person who’ll encourage.
But that’s not the time to let things slide—
© Laura Pole. All rights reserved.
Pick It and Stick with It: Tips for Making Change
Some practical change tips from the Smith Center’s Cancer Help Program retreats and their Healthy U workshop series:31
- Ask: “Am I ready to make change?” If yes, continue.
- Start by paying attention. See what speaks to you or appeals to you, and use that as a starting place to choose a practice or change you’d like to make.
- Set your daily minimum of a new practice: "I will chew my food slowly two meals a day." then cut it in half and stick to it. Choose something you know you can accomplish. Don’t underestimate the power of a short practice.
- Expect backsliding so that when you experience it you won't give up—you'll know to just start again.
- Change your environment to make it easy to do your practice.
- Tell someone: have a “purpose partner", someone sympathetic to your desire for change but to whom you'll feel some level of accountability. If someone knows you're making a change and might ask you about it, you have extra motivation to stick with it.
- Track your changes with a checklist, a spreadsheet or some other record-keeping method.
- Create ongoing support from your coach, counselor, therapist, teacher or supportive friend and follow up with him or her regularly for several months. Creating a new habit takes two to eight months, much longer than the 21 days believed for a long time. Anticipate your need for ongoing support.32
Written by Laura Pole, RN, MSN, OCNS, and reviewed by Nancy Hepp, MS; most recent update on January 21, 2020.
Smoking and Cancer
- Dana Farber: Insight: How Does Cigarette Smoke Cause Lung Cancer?
- Cancer Research UK: How smoking causes cancer.
- Cancer.net: Stopping tobacco use after a cancer diagnosis
- National Cancer Institute: Tobacco
- American Cancer Society: How to quit smoking or smokeless tobacco
Alcohol and Cancer
- National Cancer Institute: Alcohol and cancer risk
- Cancer.net: Alcohol
- Dana Farber Cancer Institute: Insight. How does alcohol cause cancer?
- The Lancet:
Obesity, Weight Management and Cancer
- National Cancer Institute: Obesity and cancer
- American Institute for Cancer Research:
- American Society of Clinical Oncology: Obesity & Cancer
- Anticancer Lifestyle Program: based on the work of Dr. David Servan-Schreiber, this describes a 12-week lifestyle transformation program for people diagnosed with cancer
- Cancer.net: How to make positive lifestyle changes while living with cancer
- Ornish Lifestyle Medicine Originally designed and tested to reverse heart disease, Ornish’s four-faceted lifestyle medicine program is also being used and tested in men with prostate cancer.
- Dr. Jeremy Geffen: The Seven Levels of Healing
- Servan-Schreiber D. Anticancer: A New Way of Life. New York: Penguin Group. 2008.
- Anticancer Lifestyle Foundation: Anticancer Lifestyle Program
- Dawn Lemanne and Victoria Maizes: Advising Women Undergoing Treatment for Breast Cancer
- Kathryn H. Schmitz PhD, MPH Anna M. Campbell PhD Martijn M. Stuiver PT, PhD Bernardine M. Pinto PhD Anna L. Schwartz PhD G. Stephen Morris PT, PhD Jennifer A. Ligibel MD Andrea Cheville MD Daniel A. Galvão PhD Catherine M. Alfano PhD Alpa V. Patel PhD Trisha Hue PhD Lynn H. Gerber MD Robert Sallis MD Niraj J. Gusani MD, MS Nicole L. Stout PT, PhD Leighton Chan MD, PhD Fiona Flowers BS Colleen Doyle MS, RD Susan Helmrich PhD William Bain PhD Jonas Sokolof DO Kerri M. Winters‐Stone PhD Kristin L. Campbell BSc, PT, PhD Charles E. Matthews PhD: Exercise is medicine in oncology: Engaging clinicians to help patients move through cancer
- American Institute for Cancer Research: New American Plate Challenge
- LifeExtension Nutritional Support: Diet and Lifestyle Considerations for Breast Cancer
- Andrew Weil Center for Integrative Medicine: CanHEAL
- Block KI, Block PB, Gyllenhaal C: Integrative Treatment for Colorectal Cancer
- Lise Alschuler and Karolyn A. Gazella: iThrive Plan
- Barbara MacDonald, ND, LAc: The Breast Cancer Companion: A Complementary Care Manual: Third Edition
- Donald I. Abrams, MD, and Andrew T. Weil, MD: Integrative Oncology, 2nd Edition
- Neil McKinney, BSc, ND: Naturopathic Oncology, 3rd Edition
- Lise Alschuler, ND, FABNO, and Karolyn Gazella: The Definitive Guide to Cancer, 3rd Edition
- Keith I. Block, MD: Life over Cancer: The Block Center Program for Integrative Cancer Treatment
- Lorenzo Cohen and Alison Jefferies: Anticancer Living: Transform Your Life and Health with the Mix of Six
- Jeremy R. Geffen, MD, FACP: The Journey through Cancer: An Oncologist's Seven-Level Program for Healing and Transforming the Whole Person
- Gerald Lemole, MD; Pallav Mehta, MD; and Dwight McKee, MD: After Cancer Care