Also known by these names
The Artemisia annua plant contains chemical compounds effective against malaria and also considered to have anticancer activity. Artemisinin is a natural derivative of Artemisia annua.
Treating the Cancer
Working against cancer growth or spread, improving survival, or working with other treatments or therapies to improve their anticancer action
Artemisinin's anticancer activity is believed to occur when it comes in contact with iron. Cancer cells concentrate iron for use in cellular division (the malaria parasite also collects high concentrations of iron). Artemisinin's contact with iron triggers the release of free radicals between cells that destroy cancer cells. Because of this “ferroptosis” effect, iron is often administered several hours before artemisinin to enhance targeting of the cancer cells while sparing normal cells.
Case studies and preliminary clinical trials have shown anticancer effects in human patients:
Lab and Animal Studies
At doses used to treat malaria, Artemisia-derived drugs are generally safe and well tolerated, but no Phase I clinical trials have tested the safety of higher doses that are likely required for treating cancer. Doses used in animal studies have been much higher than those used in anti-malaria treatment.
Plant leaves and powdered and liquid extracts are available for purchase in the US. Artemisinin, a natural derivative of Artemisia annua, is available for purchase as a supplement.
Artesunate, the synthetic drug derived from the Artemisia plant, is available by prescription in the US only for patients who have a documented case of severe malaria. It is used widely in European cancer clinics providing complementary therapies.
Exact dosage of the herb Artemisia annua in cancer has not been determined in clinical trials. Concentrations of the active ingredients vary among products.21 See Quality and Sources of Herbs, Supplements and Other Natural Products for general information.
Integrative cancer care plans, protocols and references listed below suggest doses. For a lengthy discussion of dosages of the various plant and supplement derivatives of Artemisia annua, artemisinin and artesunate, see these sources:
- Mihaela Catalina Stanciu Foundation for Life website: Artemisia annua, Artemisinin, & 2015 Nobel Prize in Medicine.
- The Moss Reports (requires purchase)
- Natural Medicines Database (requires purchase)
Integrative Plans, Protocols and Medical Systems
|For more information about plans and protocols, see our Integrative Plans and Protocols page.|
A number of European complementary and alternative medicine cancer clinics use this natural product, and Chinese researchers consider it a very promising anticancer therapy.
- Plans, protocols and programs
- Alschuler & Gazella complementary approaches:22
- Head and neck cancer
- Prostate cancer
- Bastyr University Integrative Oncology Research Center protocol for Stage IV Breast Cancer23
- Chang strategies24
- McKinney protocols25
- General cancer
- Breast cancer
- Carcinoid/neuroendocrine cancer
- Cervical cancer
- Colorectal cancer
- Esophageal cancer
- Gallbladder cancer
- Head and neck cancer
- Kidney cancer
- Liver cancer
- Lung cancer
- Multiple myeloma
- Myelodysplastic syndrome
- Ovarian cancer
- Pancreatic cancer
- Prostate cancer
- Stomach cancers
- Traditional systems
Lise Alschuler, ND, FABNO, advises avoiding using artemisinin during radiation therapy and for an additional 30 days after therapy ends.26
Keith Block, MD, advises: “Until we have more research, I advise not taking this herbal while you are undergoing conventional treatment.”27
Non-cancer Uses of Artemisinin
BCCT has not reviewed the effectiveness of this therapy for non-cancer uses.
Written by Laura Pole, RN, MSN, OCNS, and reviewed by Nancy Hepp, MS; last update January 14, 2019. Note: BCCT has not conducted an independent research of Artemisia annua. This summary draws from these sources and other as cited:
- Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center’s About Herbs
- CAM-Cancer Summaries
- Mihaela Catalina Stanciu Foundation for Life
- Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center’s About Herbs: Artemisia annua
- CAM-Cancer: Artemisia
- Mihaela Catalina Stanciu Foundation for Life: Artemisia annua, Artemisinin & 2015 Nobel Prize in Medicine
- Chang R. Beyond the Magic Bullet: The Anti-Cancer Cocktail. New York: Square One Publishers. 2012.
- TRC Natural Medicines: Artemisinin Herba-Alba and Sweet Annie (subscription required): in-depth information, ratings of effectiveness and safety and evaluation of specific Artemisia products
- Consumer Labs: Product Review (subscription is required): Wormwood
- American Botanical Council: HerbMed
- Lone Star Medical Group: Natural Alternative Treatments
- Keith I. Block, MD: Life over Cancer: The Block Center Program for Integrative Cancer Treatment
- Lise Alschuler, ND, FABNO, and Karolyn Gazella: The Definitive Guide to Cancer, 3rd Edition: An Integrative Approach to Prevention, Treatment, and Healing
- Neil McKinney, BSc, ND: Naturopathic Oncology, 3rd Edition
- Donald I. Abrams, MD, and Andrew T. Weil, MD: Integrative Oncology, 2nd Edition
- Dwight McKee, MD, editor: Clinical Pearls
- Barbara MacDonald, ND, LAc: The Breast Cancer Companion: A Complementary Care Manual: Third Edition