Acupuncture and Acupressure

Also known by these names

  • Acustimulation
  • Electroacupuncture
  • Manual acupuncture

Key Points

  • Acupuncture is a component of traditional Chinese medicine that is widely practiced in Western medicine.
  • Acupuncture and acupressure treatments stimulate designated points on the body with fine needles, pressure, or electricity.
  • BCCT’s interest in these therapies is in their success in treating symptoms related to cancer and treatments, especially pain, nausea and vomiting.
  • Acupuncture is recommended by the Society for Integrative Medicine and the American College of Chest Physicians for symptom management.
  • Acupuncture is generally safe, well tolerated and cost-effective. A few side effects are noted, and some medical conditions may make acupuncture inappropriate.
  • Acupuncture is widely available, and many conventional physicians refer patients for acupuncture therapy.

Author

Nancy Hepp, MS, BCCT Project Manager

Read more

Reviewer

Laura Pole, RN, MSN, OCNS, BCCT Senior Researcher

Read more

Last updated September 10, 2021.

Acupuncture is an ancient Chinese therapy that has generally become widely accepted in Western medicine. Acupuncture is based on the regulation of energy pathways and circulation through stimulation of specific points on the body surface, as evidenced by neurophysiological investigations, and has been shown effective and safe in a variety of conditions and treatment-related side effects.1

The World Health Organization published an extensive review of evidence in 2002 concluding that acupuncture is an effective treatment for many diseases, symptoms or conditions, including pain and other cancer symptoms.2

Treatment involves stimulation of one or more designated points on the body with needles (acupuncture), pressure (acupressure), or electricity (electroacupuncture, EA).

Clinical Practice Guidelines

Chronic Pain

The 2016 American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline for management of chronic pain in survivors of adult cancers concluded that benefits of acupuncture outweigh harms, although evidence quality is low. The guidelines give a weak recommendation for acupuncture to manage chronic pain.3

Breast Cancer

In the 2009 Society for Integrative Oncology clinical practice guidelines, “acupuncture is strongly recommended as a complementary therapy when pain is poorly controlled, when side effects from other modalities are clinically significant, when chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are poorly controlled, or when reducing the amount of pain medicine becomes a clinical goal. Acupuncture may also have a role in reducing xerostomia [dry mouth].”4

Read more

Lung Cancer

2013 clinical practice guidelines from the American College of Chest Physicians recommended acupuncture or related techniques as an adjunct treatment option for lung cancer patients with these conditions:7

Treating the Cancer

Working against cancer growth or spread, improving survival, or working with other treatments or therapies to improve their anticancer action

Lab and Animal Evidence

Read more

Managing Side Effects and Promoting Wellness

Managing or relieving side effects or symptoms, reducing treatment toxicity, supporting quality of life or promoting general well-being

Anxiety, Depression or Distress

Read more

Breathlessness (Dyspnea)

Read more

Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

Read more

Fatigue

Read more

Hot Flashes

Read more

Ileus and Bowel Function

Read more

Lymphedema

Read more

Nausea and Vomiting

Read more

Pain

Read more

Peripheral Neuropathy

Read more

Quality of Life and Physical Function

Read more

Sleep Disruption

Read more

Stress

Read more

Reducing Risk

Reducing the risk of developing cancer or the risk of recurrence

An important function of many integrative cancer therapy protocols is to alter the tumor microenvironment so that it is inhospitable to the development, growth and spread of cancer. Chronic inflammation, such as occurs when a wound doesn’t heal, can lead to fibrosis, which can then contribute to cancer growth.

Read more

Optimizing Your Terrain

Creating an environment within your body that does not support cancer development, growth or spread

Electroacupuncture during laparoscopic radical rectectomy for rectal cancer decreased markers of inflammation after surgery.74

Lower markers of coagulation among women with polycystic ovary syndrome after and for 16 weeks following 14 treatments of low-frequency electroacupuncture, but not more than with exercise in a small RCTStener-Victorin E, Baghaei F et al. Effects of acupuncture and exercise on insulin sensitivity, adipose tissue characteristics, and markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial. Fertility and Sterility. 2012 Feb;97(2):501-8. 

Access

Acupuncture has become widely but not universally available in hospitals and independent small practices. Conventional physicians and nurse practitioners often refer patients for acupuncture treatments. If your healthcare team cannot refer you to or recommend an acupuncturist, an internet search may locate one nearby. BCCT encourages you to check licensing and certification of acupuncturists before scheduling.

Cautions

Acupuncture is generally safe, well tolerated, and cost-effective. However, some adverse effects are experienced by up to 10 percent of patients, although some studies report a much lower number.75 and others a higher number.76 Effects may include these:

Expand list

Patients are advised to find fully qualified, licensed and certified acupuncturists. Many conventional physicians make referrals to such acupuncturists.

Patients with any of these conditions may be advised not to engage in treatments:77

  • Pregnancy
  • Lymphedema (in the affected limb)
  • Pacemaker use
  • Low platelet count or other severe clotting disorder
  • An unstable spine
  • Neutropenia

According to the Society for Integrative Oncology clinical practice guidelines for integrative therapies in breast cancer care, “electroacupuncture should not be used in patients with a pacemaker or implantable defibrillators and that special attention is required when treating patients who are pregnant, have seizure disorders, or are disoriented.”78

Integrative Programs, Protocols and Medical Systems

For more information about programs and protocols see our Integrative Programs and Protocols page.

 

Non-cancer Uses of Acupuncture or Acupressure

BCCT has not reviewed the effectiveness of this therapy for non-cancer uses.

Acupuncture

  • Osteoarthritis of the knee
  • Chronic neck pain
  • Chronic headache
  • Fibromyalgia symptoms
  • Low back pain
  • Bell’s palsy
  • High blood pressure
  • Hot flash severity in postmenopausal women
  • Depression symptoms
  • Reducing stroke risk in patients with traumatic brain injury
  • Allergic rhinitis
  • Allergic asthma
  • Smoking cessation
  • Adjunct to standard treatment for breathlessness (dyspnea) on exertion
  • Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for autoimmune disorders and other non-cancer diseases and disorders
  • Peripheral neuropathy due to diabetes, AIDS and other non-cancer conditions

Electroacupuncture

  • Stress urinary incontinence
  • Improving reproductive outcomes in women following in vitro fertilization
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
  • Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain
  • Procedural anxiety in patients undergoing lithotripsy
  • Reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting

Acupressure

  • Preprocedural anxiety in children

This summary draws from the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center’s About Herbs, National Cancer Institute’s Acupuncture (PDQ®), The Centre for Health Innovation's Evidence-Based Monographs: Acupuncture, CAM-Cancer’s The Summaries, and other sources as noted.

View All References

More Information

General Information about Acupuncture

Read more

Acupuncture Use with Cancer

Read more

Clinical Trials

Read more

For Healthcare Professionals

Read more

More from Our Resources Database

Read more

Enter your comments or questions below.

Comments (0)




Allowed tags: <b><i><br>Add a new comment: