Also known by these names
Curcumin is the major constituent and the active component in turmeric, a seasoning used frequently in Indian and other South Asian cuisines and a main ingredient in curry powder.
Curcumin is not readily absorbed by the intestine, but consumption with either pepper or fats is noted to increase absorption.1 However, some sources advise taking turmeric supplements on an empty stomach. Some sources also advise caution in using piperine (the active ingredient in pepper) with certain prescription medications and/or long-term, as described below. Differing advice may derive from different formulations in supplements.2 Consult your physician and the directions on a supplement for guidance.
A liposomal form of curcumin—in which an extract of pure curcumin is placed into a small bubble made of at least one lipid (fatty) layer resembling the wall of a cell—is available. Studies of liposomal curcumin have shown greater effects inhibiting tumor growth and promoting apoptosis (programmed cell death) with cancer cells.3 Other curcumin derivatives have been developed to increase absorption and show promising laboratory effects.4
Treating the Cancer
Working against cancer growth or spread, improving survival, or working with other treatments or therapies to improve their anticancer action
Preliminary findings from many small and uncontrolled studies indicate that curcumin is effective in treating cancer.5
- In several small trials in humans, curcumin has shown anticancer effects with some—but not all—patients with several types of cancer.6
- Curcumin reduced disease markers in small studies:
- Cervical neoplasia7
- Colorectal cancer:8
- Suppressed adenomas in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) when used with quercetin
- Reduced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation in smokers
- Decreased serum TNF-α level, increased the number of apoptotic cells, and enhanced the expression of p53 in tumor tissue in patients after diagnosis and before surgery
- Safe and tolerable adjunct to FOLFOX (5-fluorouracil, folinic acid and oxaliplatin) chemotherapy in patient-derived colorectal liver metastases9
- Multiple myeloma10
- Pancreatic cancer11
- Prostate cancer (in combination with soy isoflavones)12
Lab and Animal Evidence
Conventional Therapy Enhancer
- A study of chronic myeloid leukemia patients found curcumin (turmeric powder) increased the effectiveness of the chemotherapy imatinib treatment as shown in cancer markers.25
Lab and Animal Evidence
Managing Side Effects and Promoting Wellness
Managing or relieving side effects or symptoms, reducing treatment toxicity, supporting quality of life or promoting general well-being
Small trials show curumin is effective in promoting wellness, improving quality of life and reducing symptoms.39
- Curcumin reduced the severity of radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients, although not all studies have found a significant effect..40
- A study of 160 cancer patients undergoing either chemotherapy or radiotherapy assessed whether a proprietary delivery system of curcumin (Meriva®) reduced treatment symptoms such as nausea, constipation, diarrhea, weight loss, soreness and ulceration. Those receiving the curcumin treatment reported a significant reduction in symptoms compared to a control group.41
- Much milder urinary symptoms were seen in prostate cancer patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy in a small pilot study.42
- Curcumin decreased depression among non-cancer patients with major depressive disorder.43
- Increased body weight in colorectal cancer patients after diagnosis and before surgery44
- Curcuminoids improved health-related quality of life scores in patients with solid tumors who were under standard chemotherapy regimens.45
- Curcumin lowered total cholesterol levels in patients at risk of cardiovascular disease,46
Lab and Animal Evidence
Reducing the risk of developing cancer or the risk of recurrence
- Curcumin is a chemopreventive agent in colon and pancreatic cancer, cervical neoplasia and Barrets metaplasia.49
- Curcumin interfered with breast cancer proliferation in both preclinical and clinical studies50
- Curcumin treatment in West Bengal, India, was shown to have some protective role against the DNA damage caused by arsenic.51
Lab and Animal Evidence
Optimizing Your Terrain
- Curcuminoids showed anti-inflammatory effects in patients with solid tumors who were under standard chemotherapy regimens.56
- Curcumin can improve insulin signaling,57 and a clinical trial showed that it reduced the development of diabetes among prediabetic individuals.58
Lab and Animal Evidence
Foods containing curcumin—turmeric and curry powder—are widely available in grocery stores. Supplements containing cucumin or turmeric powder are also widely available.
Curcumin is generally regarded as safe by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Epidemiological evidence and several clinical trials confirm the safety of curcumin up to 12 grams per day over several months.63 However, compounds in curcumin can bind to iron and reduce iron's availability, a concern to people with anemia or iron-storage problems. Iron levels may need to be monitored with curcumin supplement use.64
Preliminary clinical evidence shows that cucrumin may slightly reduce the effectiveness of tamoxifen. In a study of breast cancer patients, researchers in the Netherlands gave tamoxifen with or without curcumin 1200 mg three times a day. The group taking tamoxifen in combination with curcumin had about an 8 percent decrease in endoxifen levels. If the curcumin was compounded with piperine (often done to substantially improve curcumin absorption), endoxifen levels were further decreased by 12 percent.65 Read more about this study and implications for use during tamoxifen treatment in the Commentary section below.
Naturopathic oncologist and BCCT advisor Dr. Lise Alschuler cautions that curcumin should not be taken with some drugs (cyclophosphaide, anastrozole, exemestane, letrozole or erlotinib, or therapeutic doses of warfarin),66 and the TRC Natural Medicines database lists several interactions with chemotherapy drugs, diabetes medications and other drugs that lower blood sugar, estrogens, drugs that slow blood clotting, and other drugs. Medical supervision is recommended at doses higher than those typically found in foods.
- Don’t use turmeric if you have gallstones, bile duct dysfunction, hyperacidity, or stomach ulcers..
- Pregnant or lactating women shouldn’t use turmeric supplements without their doctors’ approval.
- In rare cases, extended use can cause stomach upset or heartburn.
- Piperine can slow the elimination of some prescription drugs including phenytoin (Dilantin), propranolol (Inderal), and theophylline. Some evidence also suggests that curcumin can interfere with certain chemotherapy drugs used to treat breast cancer, so if you’re being treated for this disease, be sure to discuss the advisability of taking curcumin with your physician.
BCCT does not recommend therapies or doses, but provides information for patients and providers to consider as part of a complete treatment plan. Patients should discuss therapies with their physicians, as contraindications, interactions and side effects must be evaluated. Levels of active ingredients of natural products can vary widely between and even within products. See Quality and Sources of Herbs, Supplements and Other Natural Products.
Dosage recommendations are available from these sources:
- Solutions 4 Health:
- Bladder Cancer Wellness Plan
- Breast Cancer Wellness Plan
- Colorectal Cancer Wellness Plan
- Leukemia Wellness Plan
- Lung Cancer Wellness Plan
- Lymphoma Wellness Plan
- Prostate Cancer Wellness Plan
- Thyroid Cancer Wellness Plan
- Natural Medicines Database (requires purchase)
- See also the protocols listed below.
Integrative Programs, Protocols and Medical Systems
|For more information about programs and protocols, see our Integrative Programs and Protocols page.|
- Programs and protocols
- Alschuler & Gazella complementary approaches68
- Bastyr University Integrative Oncology Research Center protocol for stage IV breast cancer69
- Block program70
- Anti-inflammatory terrain modifier
- Coagulation terrain modifier
- Surgical support program (wound healing)
- Radiation support program (mucositis)
- Post-treatment program (targeting cancer progression pathways)
- Rehabilitation program (reducing inflammatory response)
- Targeted molecular therapies
- Chemopreventive (breast, colon and pancreatic cancers, melanoma)
- As a targeted therapy when other treatment isn't working
- Lemole, Mehta & McKee protocols71
- MacDonald breast cancer program72
- McKinney protocols73
- General cancer
- Breast cancer
- Bladder cancer
- Brain/nerve cancer
- Carcinoid/neuroendocrine cancer
- Cervical cancer
- Colorectal cancer
- Esophageal cancer
- Gallbladder cancer
- Head and neck cancer
- Kidney cancer
- Liver cancer
- Lung cancer
- Myelodysplastic syndrome
- Ovarian cancer
- Stomach cancer
- Thyroid cancer
- Traditional systems
Based on safety and scientific evidence, most naturopathic physicians include curcumin/turmeric in their core protocol for reducing the risk of cancer relapse in patients who have received primary conventional treatment.74
BCCT advisor Dr. Andrew Weil advises: “Neither curcumin nor turmeric taken orally is well absorbed unless taken with black pepper or piperine, a constituent of black pepper responsible for its pungency. When shopping for supplements, make sure that the one you choose contains black pepper extract or piperine.”75 However, both Dr. Weil and naturopathic oncologist Lise Alschuler caution that use of piperine may interact with a wide range of prescription medications. Dr. Alschuler does not advise long-term use of piperine.76
Karen Collins, MS, RDN, CDN, FAND, January 23, 2018: The vast majority of studies on turmeric/curcumin have been in cell studies and rodent studies, and mostly with amounts that are unlikely to be consumed in humans who simply add turmeric as a culinary spice. Human studies are really limited.
I've seen one human study show reductions in TNF-alpha (the inflammatory signaling protein) with only 150 mg of curcumin/day—but I'm not sure how to translate the TNF-alpha change as to whether it was clinically significant. Other studies I've seen and as reviewed in the Natural Medicines Database tend to use 1000 to 4000 mg/day of curcumin (and some studies use much more).
Many are aware that tamoxifen is what we call a pro-drug. A pro-drug is ineffective until specific enzymes in your body activate it. Tamoxifen is metabolized to endoxifen, the effective drug that prevents ER+ breast cancer patients from relapse.
An enzyme called CYP2D6 is responsible for the magic that changes tamoxifen to endoxifen. The activity of this enzyme varies from individual to individual. Part of the variance is due to genetics—some people are born with hyperactive CYP2D6; others have an enzyme that is very sluggish. Many medications—antidepressants like fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil) and citalopram (Celexa) amongst a host of others—as well as assorted foods and dietary supplements can either activate or slow down CYP2D6.
When this information first started causing a stir in the breast cancer world roughly 10 years ago, researchers hypothesized that taking tamoxifen with a CYP2D6 inhibitor would cause a increase in breast cancer relapse. As it turned out, further clinical research did not bolster this theory,77 leading to a new one: genetics, drugs and dietary intake have complex interactions with the body’s enzyme system. They activate some enzymes and inhibit others. This results in a variable net effect on the concentration of important drugs. In a 2016 study, the cause of low endoxifen levels could not be identified over 50 percent of the time.78
Non-cancer Uses of Curcumin
BCCT has not reviewed the effectiveness of this therapy for non-cancer uses.
Written by Nancy Hepp, MS, with review by Laura Pole, RN, MSN, OCNS; last updated on August 21, 2019.
- CAM-Cancer: Curcumin
- Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center’s About Herbs: Turmeric
- Lone Star Medical Group Health Library: Turmeric
- Nelson KM, Dahlin JL et al. The essential medicinal chemistry of curcumin. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2017 Mar 9;60(5):1620-1637.
- Cancer Research UK
- Cell Nutritionals: Cell Nutritionals: Pomi-T Study
- Oncolink: Cancer Prevention with Curcumin
- Keith I. Block, MD: Life over Cancer: The Block Center Program for Integrative Cancer Treatment
- Lise Alschuler, ND, FABNO, and Karolyn Gazella: The Definitive Guide to Cancer, 3rd Edition
- Editors: Iris F. F. Benzie and Sissi Wachtel-Galor: Herbal Medicine, 2nd Edition: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects
- American Botanical Council: HerbMed
- Therapeutic Research Center: Natural Medicines Database
- National Cancer Institute: Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine
- Neil McKinney, BSc, ND: Naturopathic Oncology, 3rd Edition
- Donald I. Abrams, MD, and Andrew T. Weil, MD: Integrative Oncology, 2nd Edition
- Raymond Chang, MD: Beyond the Magic Bullet: The Anti-Cancer Cocktail
- Keith Block and others: A Broad-Spectrum Integrative Design for Cancer Prevention and Therapy
- Block KI, Block PB, Gyllenhaal C: Integrative Treatment for Colorectal Cancer
- LifeExtension Nutritional Support: Integrative Interventions for Breast Cancer