Also known by these names
The Importance of Sleeping Well
Getting adequate sleep and rest is considered an essential lifestyle strategy to include in an integrative cancer care plan. Integrative cancer care specialists such as Keith Block, MD; Gary Deng, MD; Lise Alschuler, ND, FABNO; and Nasha Winters, ND, FABNO, all emphasize the importance of balancing one’s biorhythms (also called circadian rhythms) to create an internal environment that is hostile to cancer cells while also promoting healing and health. The sleep/rest/activity cycle is one of those rhythms. Dr. Deng considers sleep as one of the 6 Pillars of Good Health (the others being exercise, diet, stress management, relationships and meaning).
One study found that patients with advanced lung cancer suffering greater circadian activity/sleep cycle disruption suffer greater interference with function, greater anxiety and depression, poorer nighttime sleep, greater daytime fatigue, and poorer quality of life than comparable patients who maintain good circadian integration.1
Sleep (especially sleep at night) is the time when our bodies maintain optimal functioning of our immune, cellular, metabolic and endocrine (hormonal) systems. For more information about the importance of sleep, see the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's page: Why Is Sleep Important?
Melatonin, Light and Sleep
Melatonin is produced naturally by the pineal gland during the early hours of night, signaling and initiating the transition from wakefulness to sleep. Individuals who experience sleep difficulties may have disrupted melatonin production.
One factor that influences melatonin production is bright light. Such light exposure late in the evening—and especially blue-spectrum light such as from most television, computer, mobile phone and other screens—can disrupt melatonin production and delay the initiation of sleep. Treatments for sleep disruptions such as delayed sleep-wake phase disorder may curtail exposure to bright and blue-spectrum light in the evening.
During the day, melatonin production diminishes as our production of serotonin and cortisol increase. Bright light in the morning boosts serotonin and cortisol while also diminishing melatonin production, leading to greater wakefulness and setting the stage for the next evening's production of melatonin.
To optimize our natural melatonin cycles and benefits, research indicates that we should curb bright light in the evening and increase bright light exposure in the morning.3 Preliminary research also shows that bright light therapy in the morning can improve sleep in people with cancer.4
Many people in modern society now suffer from insomnia, which is marked by these symptoms:
- Difficulty falling asleep
- Early awakening
- Frequent nighttime waking and inability to get back to sleep for an hour or two
- Not feeling refreshed in the morning
Health Effects of Poor Sleep Quality
Inadequate sleep at night leads to these physical responses:
- Low levels of melatonin, a hormone naturally produced in the pineal gland that helps regulate sleep and wake cycles.
- Elevated blood cortisol levels are usually low at night but are often elevated in those with chronic sleep disruption.6
Chronic elevations in blood cortisol and adrenaline can cause physical changes that impact health and functioning. These changes are sometimes referred to as “weathering” of the body, akin to the weathering of a flag in a consistent high wind.7
When circadian rhythms are disrupted by conditions such as shift work, short sleep duration, and exposure to light at night, we see increased risk of several cancers:8
- In women:
- Breast cancer
- Ovarian cancer
- In men:
- Bladder cancer
- Colorectal cancer
- Lung cancer
- Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
- Prostate cancer
- Pancreatic cancer
Evidence of links between sleep and cancer:
Clinical Practice Guidelines
2009 evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for integrative oncology: “Any of the techniques, such as relaxation, meditation, and imagery, as well as autogenic training hypnosis, self-expression, and exercise, provide specific psychological and physiologic benefits, that is, decreases in stress; improvements in sleep, mood, and pain; a decrease in stress hormones; and improvement in immunity.” Evidence also supports use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), yoga, and psychological interventions including behavioral therapies.22
Treatments to Improve Sleep Quality
Neuropsychologist Michael Howard, PhD, lectures to healthcare professionals on understanding and managing sleep disorders. He advocates first determining if presenting insomnia is primary or secondary, for the causes and remedies are different:23
- Primary insomnia is an independent sleep disorder and typically linked to thinking and worrying, two brain processes that prevent the activation system of the brain from responding to normal signals for sleep.
- Secondary insomnia is caused by physical or psychosocial events or issues including these:
- Shift work
- Job loss
- Emotional problems such as depression
- Environmental conditions such as a warm room
- Symptoms such as hot flashes, fever or pain
A 2009 review found that behavioral therapies maintain longer-term improvement in sleep quality compared to pharmaceuticals.
In conventional medicine, insomnia and sleep disruption are often treated with sleep medications which may help temporarily but don’t address the underlying cause, can be habit-forming and may even increase risks of death from a variety of causes including overdose, infections, cancer, depression and suicide, automobile crashes, falls, and other accidents, and hypnotic-withdrawal insomnia.26
A 2009 review found that behavioral therapies maintain longer-term improvement in sleep quality compared to pharmaceuticals.27
A pilot randomized study of a fatigue-reduction diet rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains and omega-3 fatty acid-rich foods improved sleep and fatigue in women with breast cancer compared to a control group receiving general health information.28
- L-theanine (Suntheanin)30
- Valerian (About Herbs)31
- Lavender (About Herbs)32
- 5-HTP (Medline Plus)33
- Medical cannabis and cannabinoids34
- Chamomile (About Herbs) (limited evidence)35
- Homeopathic remedies (British Homeopathic Association) (limited evidence)36
- Two elements of Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management (CBSM)—relaxation training and cognitive restructuring—target sleep and fatigue. A randomized control trial of CBSM in women undergoing primary treatment for breast cancer demonstrated greater improvement in sleep quality and fatigue than those in a control group.37
- Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) for eight weeks was effective in treating moderate to severe insomnia and more effective than acupuncture for those with mild symptoms of insomnia. Both therapies also improved quality of life.38
- Qigong, a component of traditional Chinese medicine, has reduced stress levels with improved sleep quality, activity levels, immune response and balance in older adults.39
Manipulative and Body-based Methods
- Acupuncture was effective in treating moderate to severe insomnia and also improved quality of life.40
- Massage, whether with or without aromatherapy, was associated with better sleep In a randomized control trial of people with advanced cancer in a hospice setting.41
Reducing Hot Flashes as a Barrier to Sleep
Michael Irwin, MD, of the UCLA Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences prefers not to use anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce inflammation in cancer patients due to multiple side effects. He has researched several mind-body approaches and found these are useful in improving or reversing insomnia and subsequently improving inflammatory markers:
- Mindfulness meditation
- Tai chi
- Yoga meditation
- Stress reduction practices
Other symptoms such as depression and fatigue also improved.47
Balancing Sleep/Rest/Activity Biorhythms
Noted integrative cancer specialists Keith Block, M, and Lise Alschuler, ND, FABNO, suggest actions for balancing sleep, rest and activity and promoting restful sleep, including these:48
- Practice good Sleep Hygiene:
Many of the strategies for improving sleep are available through books, websites, group classes or private lessons. If you decide to use diet and supplements to help with your sleep, consulting with a healthcare professional who is experienced in prescribing diets and supplements for cancer patients—such as an integrative oncology physician, a naturopathic oncologist, an oncology dietitian or clinical nutritionist—could be helpful.
Mind-body approaches to helping with insomnia are generally considered safe.
If you decide to take natural products to assist with sleep, consult with your pharmacist or healthcare provider to see if any contraindications, side effects or drug-herb or herb-herb interactions arise. Let your cancer care team know if you are taking any natural products such as herbs or supplements.
Integrative Programs, Protocols and Medical Systems
|For more information about programs and protocols, see our Integrative Programs and Protocols page.|
- Integrative programs and protocols
- Traditional systems
Written by Laura Pole, RN, MSN, OCNS, and Nancy Hepp, MS; most recent update on February 12, 2019.
- I-Heart Radio:
- Lonestar Medical Group Patient Education webpage: Insomnia
- NCI: Sleep Problems and Cancer Treatment
- Finding a sleep specialist:
- Lorenzo Cohen and Alison Jefferies: Anticancer Living: Transform Your Life and Health with the Mix of Six
- Jeremy R. Geffen, MD, FACP: The Seven Levels of Healing®: Celebrating Life and Spirit on the Journey through Cancer
- Keith I. Block, MD: Life over Cancer: The Block Center Program for Integrative Cancer Treatment
- Lise Alschuler, ND, FABNO, and Karolyn Gazella: The Definitive Guide to Cancer, 3rd Edition
- Martin L. Rossman, MD: The Healing Mind
- Donald I. Abrams, MD, and Andrew T. Weil, MD: Integrative Oncology, 2nd Edition
- American Society of Clinical Oncology: Cancer.Net
- Wayne Jonas, MD: Your Healing Journey: A Patient’s Guide to Integrative Breast Cancer Care
- September 2018 Issue of the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
- Barbara MacDonald, ND, LAc: The Breast Cancer Companion: A Complementary Care Manual: Third Edition
- Lise Alschuler and Karolyn A. Gazella: iThrive Plan